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From the Mayor: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions About Police, Safety, Parking, and More PDF Print Email


By Mary C. Marvin, Mayor, Village of Bronxville

Jan. 23, 2019:  The following is a year-end compilation of the most-asked questions of village staffers as well as issues that have generated the most inquires/confusion.

This is also an opportunity to say thank you to every village employee. We truly have the finest, kindest, most professional group of people dedicated to our village. It is an honor – and a joy – to interact with them every day. It makes my job truly a pleasure.

Police – Safety – Parking

Our parking enforcement officers, per New York State Vehicle and Traffic Law, cannot stop drivers who cross double yellow lines to park. Only a trained police officer can make the stop. As reasoning, consider the scenario – a driver is stopped and the car is stolen or unregistered or the driver is dangerous – only a trained police officer is equipped at this juncture to handle the aftermath. In addition, any yellow-line violation must be witnessed by a police officer. A video taken and delivered to the police department does not constitute legal grounds for a ticket.

In the past, we have used overtime funds, especially near the holidays, to monitor this violation. However, in 2018, our police department dealt with an unprecedented number of highly unusual incidents, including a pervasive mail fraud scheme, a store holdup, and personal crimes, which depleted our funds at an unprecedented rate.

Our parking enforcement officers have defined routes. They cannot stand and wait, cross the street, or issue a ticket in another parking enforcement officer's zone. Routes can be tracked and errors in enforcement can be found.

Six national holidays trigger free parking in the village: New Year’s Day, Memorial Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day. Meters are strictly a tool to ensure parking turnover for our merchants. Without meters, someone could park in front of their stores, walk two blocks, and spend the day in New York City. Meter operation is related to store openings and has no relation to the esteem the village holds for any holiday honoree.

The old adage “oh it’s the end of the month, so the PD must be under pressure to write more tickets” is just not true. Our village police department has no quotas. In truth, if one is stopped for a New York State Vehicle and Traffic Law violation, e.g., speeding, the village receives a flat $15 regardless of the face value of the ticket. Given the time expenditure of the police officer, court clerk, and judge adjudicating the ticket, it is very much a money-losing transaction. Tickets are issued for safety concerns only.

Note:  Cameras authorized to record speeding are not authorized in New York State. Only a few cities have received a waiver, including our neighbor Yonkers.

Crosswalks, to meet requirements, must be from a corner to a corner unless a nearby construction project creates temporary exigent circumstances.

Our police department has measured and re-measured village streets and has not yet found a continuous stretch of road that meets width, visibility for turning, and safety standards for bicycle lanes. Simply painting a bike lane symbol is not the answer, as is evidenced by the configuration on nearby Palmer Road.

If you witness a friend or neighbor in any kind of need, do not hesitate to call our police department desk at 914-337-0500. If you wish to remain anonymous, it will be totally respected. The goal, whether a teen or senior, is to get immediate help for one’s friend.

If you do not have a garage or driveway as a part of your property title or if you plan to move to a village property that does not have parking, you may put your name on the parking waiting list either in person or online under the header Bronxville Reserved Space Sign-up (one space per household).

Note: The space previously occupied by the former renter or owner of your new home does not run with the property.

Administrative Functions

There is a great deal of confusion generated by the Bronxville address – village vs postal code.

If someone pays their taxes to the village, the state allows us to issue handicap parking permits, offer spaces in the village-owned parking lots, and give a discount for the use of recreational facilities. Services such as these are offered in every community in which you write your property tax check.

The village can issue birth certificates for babies born within the village boundaries. The first two documents are free and then $10 each thereafter. If born within New York State, one can order a birth certificate online for $30 (a cost closer to the true cost of processing these documents).

Vital statistics such as the above are not “foilable” under the New York State Freedom of Information Law.

New York State also regulates all penalties and time periods for tax payments. We have no discretion whatsoever at the local level to revise penalties or extend payment periods.

In the same vein, new residents of the village who qualify for the STAR tax exemption must now apply directly to the state and not the village.

One hundred percent of any credit card fees associated with an administrative transaction at the village are passed through to the credit card company.

Sadly, the village has no control over much of the area surrounding the rail station, as it is Metro-North’s property. Our offers to even do repairs by village employers/contractors have been rebuffed because of union and liability issues.

The Scout Field area, both upper and lower fields, are almost entirely in the cities of Mount Vernon and Yonkers and under the umbrella auspices of the County of Westchester (a very narrow land strip abutting Alden Place is village property). As a consequence, our police department has no jurisdiction over the property or activity in these other jurisdictions. 

Editor's note: As a public service, MyhometownBronxville publishes articles from local institutions, officeholders, and individuals. MyhometownBronxville does not fact-check statements therein, and any opinions expressed therein do not necessarily reflect the thinking of its staff. 

From the Mayor: Governor Cuomo's Legislative Agenda for the New Year and NYS Bills Signed and Vetoed at the End of 2018 PDF Print Email


By Mary C. Marvin, Mayor, Village of Bronxville

Jan. 9, 2019: Editor's note: This article comprises two of Mayor Marvin's columns, last week's, which is about the governor's legislative agenda for the new year (which MyhometownBronxville did not publish last week, as this is the first issue after the holidays), and this week's, which is about New York State bills that were signed and vetoed at the end of 2018. Both columns appear below.

Governor Cuomo's Legislative Agenda for the New Year

As the new year arrives so does our newly constituted New York State Legislature. January 1, 2019, featured a fully Democrat-controlled legislature for the first time in decades, including the entirety of Governor Cuomo's tenure.

As a direct consequence, the governor broke with tradition and laid out his legislative agenda in a wide-ranging speech before the New York City Bar Association in late December instead of waiting until the January state of the state address. The motivation was to enable the legislature to commence action on his top priorities immediately upon convening, with the goal of passing much of his agenda in the first hundred days. The following are the legislative goals you can expect to be discussed in the coming weeks and months:

Health care. Take action to codify the health insurance marketplace that the state created under the Affordable Care Act and maintain the ACA's protections for people with pre-existing conditions should they be overturned on the federal or judicial level. He also reiterated his desire for the legislature to pass the Reproductive Health Act and the Comprehensive Contraception Coverage Act within the first 30 days of the session.

Taxes. Maintain the millionaire's tax (though not increase it) and make permanent the 2% property tax cap on local municipalities and continue to advocate for the repeal of the SALT tax with our neighboring states of New Jersey and Connecticut.

Gender Rights. Pass the Equal Rights Amendment to add sex as a protected class. (Nearly a century after it was proposed, New York State never passed the amendment to add it to our state constitution.) In addition, the governor would approve the Gender Expression Non-Discrimination Act, which provides protections for those who are transgender and add gender identity to the state's hate crime and human rights laws. He also vowed to put a legal end to conversion therapy in New York.

Gun Control. The governor's goals are directed at three specific measures: ban bump stocks, expand the wait period from three days to ten days for gun seekers who have been flagged by the national background check database, and institute a Red Flag Bill allowing family members or school officials to petition a judge to block ownership if the person is deemed to be a danger to themselves or others.

Dream Act. Governor Cuomo advocates a state-level DREAM Act that would allow those in the country without documentation to qualify for New York State college tuition assistance.

Legalization of Marijuana. For much of his first two terms, the governor was opposed to allowing marijuana for recreational use, calling it a gateway drug as recently as last year. In a major policy change, he is now calling for legalization emulating our neighbors in Massachusetts, Vermont, and Canada.

Environment. The governor set a new goal for the electric sector to reach 100% renewable by 2040. He also advocated for bills to better regulate contaminants in drinking and groundwater.

Education. The governor is calling for a funding model for the state's schools using different formulas than the state education department and major education stakeholders have used in the past with the goal of poorer schools receiving a larger distribution on the local level.

Congestion Pricing in NYC. Vehicle traffic that enters Manhattan at certain times and in certain zones would receive an additional toll, with much of the revenue directed toward improving the NYC subway system.

Child Victims Act. For years, victims have pushed a measure that would extend the statute of limitations for child sexual abuse crimes and open up a one-year window to revive previously timed-out claims. This year, Cuomo expressed optimism and support that the Child Victims Act would become law.

Ending Cash Bail. The governor's position is that by requiring defendants to put up money or bond to get out of jail while awaiting trial discriminates against lower-income defendants. To remedy this, he would give judges more authority to make their determinations based on the risk to society of release rather than a monetary calculation.

Voting Changes. The governor is in favor of automatic voter registration, early and mail-in voting, and aligning the state and federal primaries, which are currently held on different days. In a major departure, he even floated the idea of making Election Day a state holiday. He also went further than in his past campaign finance proposals and called for a blanket ban on campaign contributions from corporations.

With few exceptions, this wish list has been reiterated prior, but given the change of power in the state senate, the initiatives have become much more feasible.

New York State Bills that Were Signed and Vetoed at the End of 2018

Now that the new state legislative session has begun, there was a flurry of bill-signing, vetoing, or pocket vetoing at year's end.

The following is a final compilation of additions to New York State laws signed by the governor since my last column that could directly affect the village.

Brownfield Opportunity Area Reforms: The legislation streamlined the process significantly and even allows for existing plans developed outside of the BOA process to be retroactively qualified for funding.

Lemon Law for Emergency Vehicles: Communities are now allowed to work directly with manufacturers of emergency vehicles for timely repairs and even full vehicle replacement.

World Trade Center Claims: Individuals may file a workman's compensation claim until year 2022 if the claim is related to the WTC rescue effort.

Additional Tax Cap Compliance: Local governments will now have to certify to the state comptroller and commissioner of taxation and finance as to whether they stayed within the parameters of the tax cap formula on a yearly basis. If a law to override was passed and not needed, such local law now must be repealed.

Note: Though the tax cap was exceeded only once since its inception and by an amount less than $50,000, the village trustees have always unanimously passed prophylactic override legislation. The reasons are twofold: major capital projects are not exempt from the cap calculation and my colleagues and I believe in home rule or crafting a budget by those closest to the needs and issues at the municipal level and not in Albany.

SUNY Impact Aid: Certain cities and villages that are home to four-year SUNY schools received financial aid to offset the costs of providing increased public safety services. This type of legislation is the wave of the future, as every community now grapples with the cost of services to tax-exempt properties – be it increased police calls, lighting, ord road and sewer improvements adjacent to the properties.

In an effort to advance Governor Cuomo's continued theme of encouraging municipal consolidations, two major bills were signed to incentivize communities to combine with neighbors. As background, when the governor was state attorney general, his office submitted a bill allowing any citizen of New York State to start the process of the dissolution of a village, regardless of whether he or she lived in that village, by garnering the support of just 10% of the residents who voted in their last mayoral election. To put the governor's bill in context, a nonresident would need to find only eight Bronxville residents to force a village-wide referendum or vote on dissolution. The incredibly flawed bill was amended several times but the new bill that was passed has provisions that require communities to vote on their own dissolution before a consolidation plan and financial impact statement are produced. The Village of Seneca Falls went this route and is now mired in years of litigation as to cost sharing and long-term financial obligations with its merged town.

The personal preferences of residents to dissolve their communities combined with the supposed tax savings have never been validated. Based on a federal census of local governments per capita, there is also no correlation between the number of governmental layers and a person's relative tax burden.

Two of the most intensely governed states are New Hampshire and Oklahoma, yet they are two of the least taxed.

New York and New Jersey are near the bottom in governmental units yet near the top in tax burden. This is the direct result of New York's "trickle down" policy of making local governments shoulder tax burdens shifted from Albany.

The two bills signed to re-energize the consolidation theme include an annual bonus from the state equal to 15% of the newly combined local government's tax levy and a $25 million funding pool made available to local governments who agree to unite with neighboring entities.

Certiorari Funding: Due to the proliferation of outdated property assessment rolls statewide, legislation now further extends the ability of municipalities to finance judgments related to certiorari and small claims assessment awards. (The village has not needed to go this route.)

Justice Court: Legislation provides for more community service opportunities vs. fines and incarceration for the violation of local laws.

Environment: Per new law, smoking is prohibited within one hundred feet of an entrance or exit to all public libraries.

Finance: A state digital currency task force is being created to provide information on the potential effects of widespread implementation of digital currencies on financial markets in the state.

Vetoes: The governor uses his veto power quite sparingly but did veto three measures that would affect communities statewide. One bill would have exposed public entities to open-ended liability by allowing damages against the public owner for any construction contract delays, making public contracts more expensive even over and above the financial implications of the Wick's Law, which adds 15 to 20% more to public vs. private construction contracts.

The second piece of legislation would have provided police and firefighters with a presumption that if MRSA was ever contracted, it was done so in the line of duty unless it could have been refuted conclusively by the municipality.

Also vetoed was a bill authorizing up to 12 weeks of paid bereavement leave upon the death of certain family members.

In early February, I head to Albany with my fellow state mayors to meet collectively and lobby for legislation that would relieve any further burdens at the local government level. I shall keep you informed.

Editor's note
: As a public service, MyhometownBronxville publishes articles from local institutions, officeholders, and individuals. MyhometownBronxville does not fact-check statements therein, and any opinions expressed therein do not necessarily reflect the thinking of its staff. 

From the Mayor: Key Legislation Passed in Albany this Year PDF Print Email


By Mary C. Marvin, Mayor, Village of Bronxville

Nov. 28, 2018:  This is the time of year I review what legislation passed in Albany with an eye toward how it will affect our village.

For the tenth year in a row, direct aid sent back to communities--all of our own tax dollars in the first place--remained stalled at $715 million, while direct aid to school districts was increased by an additional billion dollars. The same was true for highway funding, remaining at $438 million statewide, though the $65 million in extreme weather recovery funds that the governor did not include in his executive budget was restored in the adopted state budget.

So for Bronxville’s 2018-2019 budget, AIM funding remained at $64,713 and CHIPS funding totaled $155,600 (which included an additional $45,000 due to the severity of last winter and assistance for pothole repair), respectively, or the equivalent of 2.2% of the village’s $10 million tax levy.

In a departure from recent years, the adopted budget adds a total of $475 million to the State and Municipal Facilities Program ("SAM"). This money--commonly referred to as “pork”--includes $385 million in spending on practically anything that qualifies as capital. Our village government and school district are qualified grantees, so we will be reaching out to Senator Mayer and Assemblywoman Paulin with qualified projects.

Other enacted legislation, though not with such an immediate direct monetary consequence, will impact the village nonetheless. They include changes in opioid and school crossing guard funding, union membership qualification, and sexual harassment complaint procedures. 

The adopted budget creates a $100 million initiative funded by the pharmaceutical industry to support the ongoing--and growing--costs of prevention, treatment, and recovery services for individuals with substance abuse addiction. The budget also added $30 million to the state’s effort to enhance prevention, treatment, and recovery in opioid-directed programs. 

General municipal NYS law was amended to allow education institutions to pay for all or a portion of the salaries and compensation payable to all newly hired school crossing guards.

Language included in the new budget requires employers within 30 days of hiring new staff or promoting someone to a new bargaining unit to notify a union of such an employee and allow the employee time to meet with a union representative during work hours. The language also allows unions themselves to determine and enforce when and how public employees can opt out of union membership. These provisions are intended to pre-empt the potential negative impact on union revenues from the U.S. Supreme Court ruling for the plaintiff in Janus v. AFSCME, which challenged the compulsory collection of dues-like “agency fees” from employees who choose not to join unions.

The new budget also includes language requiring state and local government entities to adopt a model policy on sexual harassment created by the state. Provisions include the requirement that all employees receive sexual harassment sensitivity training, the prohibition on mandatory arbitration for sexual harassment claims in employment contracts, and the prohibition of non-disclosure clauses in settlements unless requested by the victim.

Other smaller but impactful laws include the extension to year 2022 for persons to file worker’s compensation claims related to the World Trade Center rescue effort. Veterans will also have easier access to potential benefits offered to them as part of their military service notification. And a personal favorite of mine, given my frequent train travel to Albany, the language adopted will now make it easier to use eminent domain in redeveloping the area around Penn Station.

Awaiting the governor’s signature is a bill requiring the Civil Service Commission to study and issue a report regarding wage disparities in the public sector, including at the local municipal level.

Our state legislature operates on a two-year cycle, so bills that did not make the governor’s desk are literally scrapped and must be reissued and sponsored anew. Over 16,000 pieces of legislation were introduced in the two years passed, many very municipality specific.

As an example, the issue of abandoned property and the foreclosure process is unfortunately endemic in many upstate New York communities requiring immediate legal relief.

It will be interesting in the coming two years to see how our state government may change because of the Democratic Party now controlling both houses for the first time in decades. The familiar “dance” that both parties subscribed to when it was a house divided, Democratic Assembly/Republican Senate, i.e., we can pass bills to assuage our constituents knowing with certainty they will not pass the other chamber but can say, “Well we tried.” We continue as a board of trustees to be vigilant in monitoring state legislation and voice our support or concerns as they impact our village.

Editor's note: As a public service, MyhometownBronxville publishes articles from local institutions, officeholders, and individuals. MyhometownBronxville does not fact-check statements therein, and any opinions expressed therein do not necessarily reflect the thinking of its staff.

From the Mayor: Thanksgiving Sentiments Written Almost 100 Years Ago Resonate Today PDF Print Email


By Mary C. Marvin, Mayor, Village of Bronxville

Nov. 21, 2018:  I was so moved by the hundredth-anniversary remembrance of the cessation of World War I in Europe. It made me think what our country was feeling collectively as a nation at the time.

A little known but poignant tradition in our country since our founding has been a Thanksgiving proclamation issued by the sitting president. Given the confluence of the war anniversary and our distinctly American Thanksgiving holiday, I thought it would be fascinating to see what our president at the time was thinking as many of our grandfathers engaged in "the war to end all wars."

In his 1917 proclamation, President Woodrow Wilson viewed the war as:

The opportunity to serve mankind as we once served ourselves in the great day of our Declaration of Independence, by taking up arms against a tyranny that threatened to master and debase men everywhere and joining with other free peoples in demanding for all the nations of the world what we then demanded and obtained for ourselves.

In this day of the revelation of our duty not only to defend our own rights as a nation but to defend also the rights of free men throughout the world, there has been vouchsafed us in full and inspiring measure the resolution and spirit of united action.

We have been brought to one mind and purpose. A new vigor of common counsel and common action has been revealed in us. We should especially thank God that in such circumstances, in the midst of the greatest enterprise the spirits of men have ever entered upon, we have, if we but observe a reasonable and practicable economy, abundance with which to supply the needs of those associated with us as well as our own. A new light shines about us. The great duties of a new day awaken a new and greater national spirit in us. We shall never again be divided or wonder what stuff we are made of.

As the years went by, President Wilson's Thanksgiving proclamations embodied the mood of the nation as the war took its toll. In 1918, President Wilson proclaimed:  

This year, we have special and moving cause to be grateful and to rejoice. God has in His good pleasure given us peace. It has not come as a mere cessation of arms, a mere relief from the strain and tragedy of war. It has come as a great triumph of right. Complete victory has brought us, not peace alone, but the confident promise of a new day as well in which justice shall replace force and jealous intrigue among the nations. Our gallant armies have participated in a triumph which is not marred or stained by any purpose of selfish aggression. In a righteous cause they have won immortal glory and have nobly served their nation in serving mankind. God has indeed been gracious. We have cause for such rejoicing as revives and strengthens in us all the best traditions of our national history. A new day shines about us, in which our hearts take new courage and look forward with new hope to new and greater duties.

In 1919, Wilson sensed a healing spirit across the nation and so gave thanks.

During the past year we have had much to make us grateful. In spite of the confusion in our economic life resulting from the war we have prospered. Our harvests have been plentiful, and of our abundance we have been able to render succor to less favored nations. Our democracy remains unshaken in a world torn with political and social unrest. Our traditional ideals are still our guides in the path of progress and civilization.

These great blessings, vouchsafed to us, for which we devoutly give thanks, should arouse us to a fuller sense of our duty to ourselves and to mankind to see to it that nothing that we may do shall mar the completeness of the victory which we helped to win. No selfish purpose animated us in becoming participants in the world war, and with a like spirit of unselfishness we should strive to aid by our example and by our cooperation in realizing the enduring welfare of all peoples and in bringing into being a world ruled by friendship and good will.

And finally, the Thanksgiving of 1920 saw a level of hope and recovery and the promise of a great future.

We have abundant cause for thanksgiving. The lesions of the war are rapidly healing. The great army of freemen, which America sent to the defense of Liberty, returning to the grateful embrace of the nation, has resumed the useful pursuits of peace, as simply and as promptly as it rushed to arms in obedience to the country's call. The equal justice of our laws has received steady vindication in the support of a law-abiding people against various and sinister attacks, which have reflected only the baser agitations of war, now happily passing. In plenty, security and peace, our virtuous and self-reliant people face the future, its duties and its opportunities. May we have vision to discern our duties; the strength, both of hand and resolve, to discharge them; and the soundness of heart to realize that the truest opportunities are those of service.

All of these sentiments, though collectively written almost 100 years ago, resonate as if written for us to take heed and guidance as we celebrate Thanksgiving 2018.

Editor's note: As a public service, MyhometownBronxville publishes articles from local institutions, officeholders, and individuals. MyhometownBronxville does not fact-check statements therein, and any opinions expressed therein do not necessarily reflect the thinking of its staff.

From the Mayor: Assessed Values of Bronxville Real Estate Defensible; Grievance Numbers Low PDF Print Email


By Mary C. Marvin, Mayor, Village of Bronxville

Nov. 14, 2018:  As a result of the federal tax law changes and the uncertainty that has followed in the real estate market, the village trustees had our assessor give us an update as to current property values and sales trends. The information was so valuable that sharing with residents was imperative.

As background, the village undertook a full property revaluation in 2007 after over 50 years without a comprehensive update. A full revaluation is a municipality’s only legal opportunity to increase undervalued homes. This is undoubtedly its greatest benefit since without a revaluation, undervalued homes would remain so in perpetuity continuing decades of inequity unless improvements were made.

Even home improvement can only be legally assessed at the value increase they add to a home. As an example, if one’s home is valued at $1 million, even though the market says it’s worth $1.5 million, the addition of a $20,000 bathroom improvement can only raise the assessment to $1,020,000 without a full revaluation, so inequity persists.

Conversely, the state allows for a yearly grievance process where assessed values can only be left intact or lowered. In municipalities with a history of no revaluations and thus indefensible numbers, there is a steady stream of claims that result in decreases in property values that soon prove unsustainable in the long term.

As an example, in 2007, Bronxville had 275 grievance claims, putting 27% of our village taxable assessed value at risk vs 2018, when grievances totaled 34, placing 5% of our total taxable value on the table.

Our grievance numbers are now so low because our values are so defensible. We update village values on a state-approved three-year cycle with roughly 400 homes chosen randomly on a yearly basis.

Outside of this normal cycle, building permits that result in improvements are reviewed yearly to discern additional home value and home sales in real time outside of the three-year cycle.

As perspective,

  • In 2015, $150,816,875 of village valuation was sold in 66 transactions with a median sales price of $2,135,000.

  • In 2016, $130,691,100 of value transferred in 59 sales, transactions with a median sale price of $2,200,000.

  • In 2017, 58 sales were transacted, representing $136,300,000 in village values, repeating a median sales price of $2,200,000.

  • Thus far, in 2018, $101,675,768 in value was sold in 45 transfers with a median sales price of $2,010,000, representing an 8.6% decrease from 2017 values.

Post-tax act (December 2017), village properties sold for 1.43% over actual assessments. Clearly, other factors were also in play, but the tax charges loomed large in the equation.

Addressing the issue of lower sales numbers at the high end of the market, the assessor is contemplating a special review for the home price strata of $3.6 million and above as a legally distinct class and adjust values accordingly.

If grouped as a class for revaluation, $200 million of village-assessed valuation would be in play. If values should drop, for example by 10%, the result would be a $20 million decrease in our current village cumulative assessed value of $3.162 billion.

Thanks to over 90% of villagers opening their homes for inspection, our revaluation serves statewide as a model for accuracy and fairness.

We now defend our values with vigor as our numbers are so defensible and have been almost uniformly victorious in court proceedings affecting all facets of the market – residential, commercial, and multi-unit.

Bronxville Village values uniformly and consistently approximate the assessing ideal of 10% or less from the mean or so-called coefficient of dispersion (C.O.D.). Since assessment of value is as much an art as a science, courts are not likely to impose any revaluation remedies unless the value delta is a full 25% from the mean. Consequently, and unlike Bronxville, municipal taxing authorities that await a court solution to the fairness problem are caught in a spiral of litigation and fruitless expense.

The village has no discretion as to assessment policies, as we are governed by the rules of the New York State Office of Real Property Services. New York procedure is considered rather cumbersome and arcane vis-à-vis those of other states. As an example, Connecticut reassesses property every five years by state law, and Florida uses the method that whatever you were willing to pay for property simply becomes its value. Though no system is perfect, these states offer a level of certainty and predictability not found in New York State laws. 

Photo by A. Warner

Editor's note: As a public service, MyhometownBronxville publishes articles from local institutions, officeholders, and individuals. MyhometownBronxville does not fact-check statements therein, and any opinions expressed therein do not necessarily reflect the thinking of its staff.

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